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A problem-focused approach designed to help people identify and change the dysfunctional beliefs, thoughts, and patterns of behavior that contribute to their problems.  Its underlying principle is that thoughts affect emotions, which then influence behaviors.  CBT combines two very effective kinds of psychotherapy—cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy.  Cognitive therapy concentrates on thoughts, assumptions, and beliefs.  Behavioral therapy concentrates on specific actions and environments that either change or maintain behaviors.
An assessment of whether the cost of the intervention or program is worth the benefit by measuring both in the same unit of analysis.
Information collected in a systematic manner in order to help measure performance.  This collection of observations or recorded factual material will support research and evaluation efforts.

To show clearly and deliberately that a program or process is having an intended or expected effect.


A mechanism designed to hold youth accountable for their actions by sanctioning behavior and in some cases securing services, but at the same time generally avoiding formal court processing in the juvenile justice system.


The degree to which an intervention achieves a desired outcome in practice.


A research design where participants are randomly assigned to either an experimental (treatment) or the control group (no treatment).  This allows the researchers to examine whether the intervention/treatment caused the outcomes or effect to take place (causal inference).


Adherence to a model, implementing programming in accordance to all of the requirements set forth by the developer.

A review of a project by the developer to determine if adherence to implementation criteria is occurring.

One in a series of affects that results from an intervention and may lead to a health outcome.  For example, in an educational intervention designed to reduce skin cancer incidence, intermediate outcomes could be covering-up behavior or seeking shade.​


An intervention is any kind of planned activity or group of activities (including programs, services, policies, and laws) designed to prevent negative behaviors.  They are intended to disrupt the delinquency process and prevent a youth from penetrating further into the juvenile justice system.


A diagram that shows the interrelationships between activities and their outcomes, using arrows to indicate which sets of activities are believed to contribute to specific outcomes.


Assessing changes in characteristic(s) or attributes of subjects as a result of participation in a program or practice.

The review of numerous studies on the same subject.

A juvenile’s individual and environmental attributes that are predictive of future delinquent behavior and that can be changed (dynamic in nature).  Often referred to as criminogenic needs.

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